Write an analytical essay

If it is particular words or phrases that "prove" your point, you do not need to quote the sentences they appear in; rather, incorporate the words and phrases into sentences expressing your own ideas.

top Introduce a quotation either by indicating what it is intended to show or by naming its source, or both.

For non-narrative poetry, it's customary to attribute quotations to "the speaker"; for a story with a narrator, to "the narrator." For plays, novels, and other works with characters, identify characters as you quote them.

Do not use two quotations in a row, without intervening material of your own.

For further information see Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Acknowledging Sources - How to Quote a Source. It's customary in literary analysis to use the present tense; it is at the present time that you (and your reader) are looking at the text.

top For the most part, you must reproduce the spelling, capitalization, and internal punctuation of the original exactly.

The following alterations are acceptable: You may alter the closing punctuation of a quotation in order to incorporate it into a sentence of your own: "Books are not life," Lawrence emphasized.

Commas and periods go inside the closing quotation marks; the other punctuation marks go outside.

Lawrence insisted that books "are not life"; however, he wrote exultantly about the power of the novel.

Why does Lawrence need to point out that "Books are not life"?

You can also refer to textual data, summarize, and paraphrase.

You will often want merely to refer or point to passages (as in the third sentence in the sample paragraph) that contribute to your argument. "translate" the original into your own words, again instead of quoting.

Summarize or paraphrase when it is not so much the language of the text that justifies your position, but the substance or content.

Similarly, after you have decided that you do want to use material in quoted form, quote only the portions of the text specifically relevant to your point.

Think of the text in terms of units--words, phrases, sentences, and groups of sentences (paragraphs, stanzas)--and use only the units you need.

In this case just include the page number in parentheses after the quotation or reference to the text.

To be sure, though, you should ask your course instructor.

The documentation style used in this pages is that presented in the 1995 , but other style systems are commonly used.

The Writing Center has information about the rules of documentation in general and about a number of the most common systems, such as APA, APSA, CBE, Chicago/Turabian, MLA, and Numbered References.

Look, analytical essays can be one of the trickiest challenges for even professional writers for two reasons: First, these essays require you to explore a topic by letting the experts argue about the subject.

For quotations of this length, use the patterns described above.

Indent "longer" quotations in a block about ten spaces in from the left margin; when a quotation is indented, quotation marks are not used.

The (1995) recommends that indented quotations be double-spaced, but many instructors prefer them single-spaced.

The meaning of "longer" varies slightly from one style system to another, but a general rule is to indent quotations that are more than two (or three) lines of verse or three (or four) lines of prose. Place the speaker's name before the speech quoted: The quotations are used in accordance with the writer's purpose, i.e. Ramsey's feelings indicates something about her personality.

Quoting is only one of several ways to present textual material as evidence.

When quoting lines of poetry up to three lines long (which are not indented, see Indenting quotations), separate one line of poetry from another with a slash mark (see examples in Incorporating Quotations into Sentences).

If for the sake of brevity you wish to omit material from a quoted passage, use ellipsis points (three spaced periods) to indicate the omission. The writer quoted only those portions of the original sentences that related to the point of the analysis.) When quoting, you may alter grammatical forms such as the tense of a verb or the person of a pronoun so that the quotation conforms grammatically to your own prose; indicate these alterations by placing square brackets around the changed form.

In the following quotation "her" replaces the "your" of the original so that the quote fits the point of view of the paper (third person): When he hears Cordelia's answer, Lear seems surprised, but not dumbfounded.

He advises her to "mend [her] speech a little." He had expected her to praise him the most; but compared to her sisters', her remarks seem almost insulting (1.1.95).

top Prose or verse quotations less than four lines long are not indented.

But events in a narrative or drama take place in a time sequence.

You will often need to use a past tense to refer to events that took place before the moment you are presently discussing: When he hears Cordelia's answer, Lear seems surprised, but not dumbfounded.

top Follow your course instructor's guidelines for documenting sources.

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